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- A boiler is a closed vessel in which drinking water or other liquid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. (In North America, the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is never to boil the fluid.) The warmed or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in a variety of procedures or heating applications,[1 - [2 - including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted parts of boilers thanks to stress and corrosion corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless is often found in superheater sections that won't come in contact with boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western european "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.
For much of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), mentioned for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice relocated towards the use of steel instead, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded structure, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers significantly superior to those of welded steel boilers.
Cast iron might be used for the heating system vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create hot water usually, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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The source of heating for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised warmth exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method
Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common
boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)
indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like
Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:
Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fire heats a partially filled drinking water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure steam, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.
Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume left above to support the vapor (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held permanently surrounded by the water in order to keep up the heat range of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through a second parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the edges and then under the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of steam creation, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to people of the liquid or gas variety.
Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled up with water are arranged inside a furnace in several possible configurations. The water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones containing water and top of the ones water and steam; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This type gives high vapor production rates generally, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be made to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the pipe is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is kept so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century which use continued into the early 20th century. .
1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a conventional firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is included inside solid iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to generate the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, design and security standards.[5 -
Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could start poorly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. As a result of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and heat around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising vegetable will suffer from size corrosion and formation. At best, this boosts energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic loss and failure of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6 -
A boiler that has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If supply drinking water is sent in to the empty boiler then, the tiny cascade of inbound water instantly boils on connection with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by basic safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam source lines that is bigger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from taking place, and therefore reduce their insurance statements.[7 - [8 -
Superheated steam boiler
A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperature; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and further heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating vegetable because the bigger vapor temp requires a higher flue gas exhaust temp.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, typically by providing an economizer that heats the give food to water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. A couple of advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: benefits in input heat range to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There can also be useful restrictions in using damp vapor, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will at first be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.
Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temp in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a liquid. Some are a mixture of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas route will also high temperature the superheater vapor piping and the vapor within. While the temp of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.
Supercritical steam generator
Boiler for a power seed.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the liquid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is absolutely no era of vapor bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which vapor bubbles can develop. As the fluid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which turns the power generator from which power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be a mix of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This results in somewhat less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which settings when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
Protection valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauge or drinking water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to force these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the steam - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a tank. Mostly found on a drinking water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temp of the makeup water.
Hand holes: They may be steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut off energy to the boiler to avoid it from running once the drinking water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown series: It provides a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float on top of the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is made to circulate drinking water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater collection. This can be installed to the medial side of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -
Top feed: Within this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly heated and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam.
Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Main steam stop valve:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Energy oil system:energy oil heaters
Other essential items
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
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